The 2008 Florida Statutes
TORTSChapter 767 DAMAGE BY DOGS
767.01 Dog owner's liability for damages to persons, domestic animals, or livestock.--Owners of dogs shall be liable for any damage done by their dogs to a person or to any animal included in the definitions of "domestic animal" and "livestock" as provided by s. 585.01. History.--RS 2341; ch. 4979, 1901; GS 3142; RGS 4957; CGL 7044; s. 1, ch. 94-339.
TORTS DAMAGE BY DOGS 767.04Dog owner's liability for damages to persons bitten.--The owner of any dog that bites any person while such person is on or in a public place, or lawfully on or in a private place, including the property of the owner of the dog, is liable for damages suffered by persons bitten, regardless of the former viciousness of the dog or the owners' knowledge of such viciousness. However, any negligence on the part of the person bitten that is a proximate cause of the biting incident reduces the liability of the owner of the dog by the percentage that the bitten person's negligence contributed to the biting incident. A person is lawfully upon private property of such owner within the meaning of this act when the person is on such property in the performance of any duty imposed upon him or her by the laws of this state or by the laws or postal regulations of the United States, or when the person is on such property upon invitation, expressed or implied, of the owner. However, the owner is not liable, except as to a person under the age of 6, or unless the damages are proximately caused by a negligent act or omission of the owner, if at the time of any such injury the owner had displayed in a prominent place on his or her premises a sign easily readable including the words "Bad Dog." The remedy provided by this section is in addition to and cumulative with any other remedy provided by statute or common law. 767.05
History.--s. 1, ch. 25109, 1949; s. 1, ch. 93-13; s. 1155, ch. 97-102.
767.12Classification of dogs as dangerous; certification of registration; notice and hearing requirements; confinement of animal; exemption; appeals; unlawful acts.—
(b) A dog shall not be declared dangerous if the threat, injury, or damage was sustained by a person who, at the time, was unlawfully on the property or, while lawfully on the property, was tormenting, abusing, or assaulting the dog or its owner or a family member. No dog may be declared dangerous if the dog was protecting or defending a human being within the immediate vicinity of the dog from an unjustified attack or assault.
The technical term for "an event started" or "an item presented" is positive, since it's something that's added to the animal's environment.
The technical term for "an event ended" or "an item taken away" is negative, since it's something that's subtracted from the animal's environment.
Anything that increases a behavior - makes it occur more frequently, makes it stronger, or makes it more likely to occur - is termed a reinforcer. Often, an animal (or person) will perceive "starting Something Good" or "ending Something Bad" as something worth pursuing, and they will repeat the behaviors that seem to cause these consequences. These consequences will increase the behaviors that lead to them, so they are reinforcers. These are consequences the animal will work to attain, so they strengthen the behavior.
Anything that decreases a behavior - makes it occur less frequently, makes it weaker, or makes it less likely to occur - is termed a punisher. Often, an animal (or person) will perceive "ending Something Good" or "starting Something Bad" as something worth avoiding, and they will not repeat the behaviors that seem to cause these consequences. These consequences will decrease the behaviors that lead to them, so they are punishers.
Applying these terms to the Four Possible Consequences, you get:
Something Good can start or be presented, so behavior increases = Positive Reinforcement (R+)
Something Good can end or be taken away, so behavior decreases = Negative Punishment (P-)
Something Bad can start or be presented, so behavior decreases = Positive Punishment (P+)
Something Bad can end or be taken away, so behavior increases = Negative Reinforcement (R-)
Positive Reinforcement:Something added increases behavior
Positive PunishmentSomething added decreases behavior
Negative ReinforcementSomething removed increases behavior
Negative PunishmentSomething removed decreases behavior
Remember that these definitions are based on their actual effect on the behavior in question: they must reduce or strengthen the behavior to be considered a consequence and be defined as a punishment or reinforcement. Pleasures meant as rewards but that do not strengthen a behavior are indulgences, not reinforcement; aversives meant as a behavior weakener but which do not weaken a behavior are abuse, not punishment.
So, a trainer can use all of these operant conditioners as reinforcers, even positive punishment does not have to be abuse:Positive Punishment
Positive punishment is something that is applied to reduce a behavior. The term "positive" often confuses people, because in common terms "positive" means something good, upbeat, happy, pleasant, rewarding. Remember, this is technical terminology we're using, though, so here "positive" means "added" or "started". Also keep in mind that in these terms, it is not the animal that is "punished" (treated badly to pay for some moral wrong), but the behavior that is "punished" (in other words, reduced). Positive punishment, when applied correctly, is the most effective way to stop unwanted behaviors. Its main flaw is that it does not teach specific alternative behaviors.
taken in part by permission as informative from:http://www.wagntrain.com